Kinkajou : I am a big believer in the Sigma Psi senses. Perceiving knowledge through the collective human consciousness, perhaps through a form of quantum communication.
I use this comprehensively on this web site as an interviewing tool. Some may say it is akin to communicating with dead people. However, many of the people I communicate with have not been born yet and may never in fact be born. Not in this universe at least.
So tell us what You know about Psi, old dog.
Erasmus : The Psi sense: Psi is an encompassing term for parapsychological phenomena. Parapsychology is the science which studies paranormal psychic phenomena. It covers a number of psychic phenomena, which we talk about later.
We use the Greek letter Psi to represent all these parapsychological phenomena.
The Greek letter Psi equates to the mind and the unknown ability.
Unusual Sight Which Genes Control the Power
Kinkajou : What is psychic ability?
Erasmus : Some people believe that every person has the potential to access some type of psychic ability. Whether this is simply an intuition, or a waking dream, an ability to use tarot cards accurately or an innate feeling that arrives suddenly and unexpectedly is the question.
People vary in their psychic abilities in much the same way that people vary in the mental and physical attributes. Psychic abilities can be trained.
Prolonged use, trust, and discernment of intuition leads to an enhanced capacity to use this sense. Belief and focus are essential for development of psychic capacities. If you do not believe, you will never have to. If you are open to belief, even if you insist on scientific validation you may well be an observer of an unusual sense which human beings share.
The Focusing effect was first identified in research by Pavel Stepanek. People who believe in psi (“sheep”) tend to score above chance, while those who do not believe in psi (“goats”) tend to show null results or psi missing. This has been called the “sheep goat” effect.
Personality factors may intrude on intuition. When the experiment was done with a group of Psi accepting people to predict sharemarket up down trends, they scored highly.
However, after they met the businessman promoting the experiment, the result stranded significantly below average predictions. Liking or not liking the person became a significant factor in the correctness of the predicted results. The results would have to be interpreted as positive.
Positive and negative correlations both indicate that there are indeed forces at work.
Erasmus : We have become accustomed to trusting our 5 senses to explain all aspect of our world. We have accepted that if we cannot hear it, see it, smell it, taste it, or touch it then ‘it’ cannot be explained and therefore simply does not exist. So says “science”.
Tell us about the “Psychic” research and Experimental work to date .
Erasmus : There are many different kinds and levels of psychic ability which vary per individual. There is a huge difference between reception of psi information and its conscious interpretation through its manifestation in the person’s mind.
Many people may not even realise that thought, feeling or picture that suddenly springs into their mind may actually be a psychic intuition.
Some authors believe that parapsychological phenomena occur more with association with altered states of consciousness such as dreams, deep relaxation, meditation or hypnosis.
However, many psychics believe that intuition and parapsychological phenomena occur as part of everyday life, often realised by the people affected. There is a substantial difference between a waking dream and a dream.
In the 1960s researchers proposed that memory may be better model of psi in perception. They moved away from forced choice mythologies such as the Zener more towards free response measures.
These procedures included relaxation, meditation, rent sleep and even mild sensory deprivation procedures. Meta-analyses evidenced reliable effects and many confirmatory studies were replicable.
Zener Card Symbols for PSi Testing
Erasmus : Many extrasensory or intuitive events are described as occurring spontaneously within people’s lives, not in the context of scientifically controlled experiments. Such experiences have been reported to be much stronger more obvious in those observed in laboratory experiment conditions.
These are perhaps the historical basis for the widespread belief in the authenticity of Parapsychic phenomena. Replicating these types of extraordinary experiences in scientifically controlled situations is essentially extremely difficult or perhaps impossible. There is substantial debate about whether or not statistically compelling laboratory evidence exists for us to accept the validity of the ESP phenomenon.
Studies tend to be small, as they often focus on particular individuals who consistently produce remarkable results while small groups often produce highly significant trends that cannot be dismissed even if the findings are small.
Types of “Psychic” ability
Kinkajou : Tell us about the Types of “Psychic” ability
- psi gamma
- Telepathy and
- psi kappa.
- Telekinesis or psychokinesis (Bio-PK, Haunting, Poltergeists )
- psychic healing
Erasmus : One field of study is psi gamma, which refers to the ability to acquire information which the person has no physical experience of. It is also often referred to as ESP. ESP -also known as extrasensory perception is a perception of communication outside of normal sensory channels, as in telepathy, clairvoyance or precognition. ESP is sometimes also referred to as a sixth sense.
- clairvoyance (Clairaudience, Clairsentience,Clairvoyance, Channelling)
- Telepathy and
Telepathy Mind To Mind
Erasmus : Clairvoyance is defined as the supernatural power of seeing objects or actions removed in space or time from natural viewing and/or the quick, intuitive knowledge of things and people; sagacity. The definition of clairvoyance can include perceptions via other senses than vision. For example hearing and feeling are also commonly experienced channels for clairvoyance.
Synonyms: intuition, penetration, discernment, vision.
Erasmus : Clairvoyance include subcategories of
- Clairaudience: the ability to hear or perceive sounds which are not normally audible
- Clairsentience : knowing of an event past, present or future through a feeling;
- Clairvoyance: often also known as remote viewing, the ability to obtain information by seeing events or actions remote in time or space.
- Channelling -This involves the act of receiving information from an outside source.
Erasmus : Telepathy includes the ability to establish communication between minds by some means other than the usual five senses.
Erasmus : Divination or prophecy or Augury: this involves the practice of attempting to foretell future events or discover hidden knowledge by cold or supernatural means.
Erasmus : Precognition or intuition can be defined as the ability to see ahead in time, and to experience a premonition of an event something that will happen in the future.Intuition can be defined as a direct perception of truth or fact independent of any reasoning process or perception, a keen or quick insight, an immediate cognition of an object not inferred or determined by a previous cognition or experience of the same object.
- Prophesy -to predict a future event under the influence of divine guidance.
- Psychometry -divining knowledge about an object or a person connected with it through contact with the object.
Dalai Lama a Reincarnation
Erasmus : Waking dreams are a parapsychological event. They can take the form of a vision, a voice or an intense feeling. They are very distinct phenomena to dreams. They are very distinct phenomena to lucid dreams.
Dreams are different to waking dreams. Some people feel that dreams can display precognition. However most parapsychologists and doctors would suggest that dreams are reflection of the events in a person’s life past present and possible future. Dream dictionaries can be used to interpret dreams and to extract meaning of relevance from these events.
Testing for Psychic Phenomena
Kinkajou : How can we test for these phenomena?
Erasmus : a number of net sites offer the ability to test for the presence of psychic phenomena.
Clairvoyance is the ability to see or sense external objects, events or information without the use of the normal senses. In the Psi Lab test for clairvoyance, a card is chosen at random and displayed face down. You try to sense which card has been chosen.
Precognition is the ability to see or sense future events via extrasensory means. In the Psi Lab test for precognition, you try to determine which card is about to be selected, before the card is chosen.
Telepathy is communication beyond the normal senses. The Psi Lab test for telepathy requires two people: the sender sitting by the computer and the receiver seated where the screen cannot be seen. When a card has been selected at random and displayed, the sender tries to transmit the card to the receiver.
- Remote Viewing
Remote viewing is the ability to see objects or events at a distance by extrasensory means. In the Psi Lab remote viewing test, a card is selected at random and displayed face up after a short delay, giving you time to turn away from the screen or leave the room. You then try to sense the card that is being displayed.
There are some standard test formats.
For example the “Byzant Psi Lab experiments” These experiments are performed using cards picked at random, one at a time, from any of a number of decks. You choose the type of psychic ability to test, the deck to use and the total number of cards to be selected. At each stage a card is chosen randomly, used according to the skill being tested, then returned to the deck, which is then reshuffled.
- Thus every card in the deck has an equal chance of being chosen each time, preventing card counting techniques from having any influence on the results of the experiment.
Precognition vs Premonition
Kinkajou : Interesting. But I think that the card tests are perhaps not the best test of psychic ability. It seems to work a bit differently than that. Although the official justification seems to make sense, you can’t help but wonder to what extent the methodology is flawed by some failure to understand the circumstances, strengths and weaknesses of the traits you are working with.
Mediums with Psychic Ability
Kinkajou : So tell us about people who say they have psychic skill. They call themselves “mediums”.
Erasmus : Mediums say that they channel information. The public view is that they talk to dead people, but I think it far more useful to consider that they communicate with some facet of the human or the human collective consciousness. It has been shown by some researchers that it is possible to communicate with someone who does not exist.
- A Medium >
is a person who channels by relaying information from an outside source.
- Another term is that of “Trans-Medium Channel” > this being -a consciousness that enters into the human being and communicates through that person.
Erasmus : Mediums and Channels report experiences such as:
- Reincarnation: The belief that we live successive lives, with primarily evidence coming from the apparent recollections of previous lives by very small children.
- NDE : Near death experience; an experience reported by those who were revived from nearly dying. Often refers to a core experience that includes feelings of peace, OBE, seeing lights and other phenomena.
- Hiero-Scripting is automatic painting or drawing. The graphic version of automatic writing.
- Automatic Writing -the art of writing through the subconscious mind without conscious thought, or through guided writing from the unknown.
- Astral Projection or astral travelling >
the act of separating the astral body (spirit or consciousness) from the physical body and its journey into the universe
Astral projection is defined as the intentional or deliberate act of having the spirit or consciousness leave the physical body. Out of body experiences such as near death experiences happen involuntarily such as while dreaming or in loss of consciousness situations while in extreme danger.
- Telekinesis or psychokinesis (Bio-PK, Haunting, Poltergeists )
- psychic healing
Erasmus : Another field of study is psi kappa. This refers to ability to move physical objects by the power of psi. This includes telekinesis and psychic healing.
- Telekinesis or psychokinesis: this refers to the ability to move or deform purportedly through mental processes. Psychokinesis is the ability to influence objects or events directly through the power of the mind. In the Psi Lab test for Psychokinesis, you try to influence the card the computer is about to choose.
This category involves experiences with physical energies such as:
- Bio-PK : Direct mental interactions with living systems.
- Haunting : Recurrent phenomena reported to occur in particular locations that include apparitions, sounds, movement of objects, and other effects.
- Poltergeist: Large-scale PK phenomena often attributed to spirits, but which are now thought to be due to a living person, frequently an adolescent.
- psychic healing: this involves the use of energies or powers beyond normal human influence to change the course of a disease or illness
The History of Psi
Kinkajou :Tel us about the history of the science of PSI.
Erasmus : Many scientists reject ESP or psi phenomena due to the purported absence of an evidence base, the lack of a theory which would explain ESP and the lack of experimental techniques which can provide reliably positive results.
Many doctors hold alternative theories of ESP. These include the disease schizophrenia. In this illness patients can and do hold extreme opinions in the absence of evidence or proof of the reality of those opinions. Schizophrenia is a disease of the mind,
Kinkajou : would you say that schizophrenia is a physical illness or mental illness?
Erasmus : Dr Xxxxx believes that schizophrenia is a physical illness of the brain. It involves damage to the structure and function of the brain. This manifests as abnormal behaviour, abnormal thoughts abnormal beliefs and abnormal mental processes. It is a relentless and progressive disease. He proposes there may be ways to affect the progress of this illness.
Psychiatric medicines while improving the symptoms do not change the progress or prognosis of the disease. However physical therapies involving nutrition and antibiotic medications can change the progression of the illness.
Kinkajou : Keep going. Tell us more about the history of PSI.
Erasmus : Early British research
Early research focussed on a few specific techniques:
- Card guessing (conducted by Ina Jephson, in the 1920s.)
- automated target-selection and data-recording in guessing the location of a future point of light (conducted by G.N.M. Tyrrell)
- paranormal cognition of drawings of randomly selected words, using participants from across the globe (Conducted by Whateley Carington)
- the ability to retrieve information associated with token objects (Conducted by J. Hettinger)
- Replications of the card-guessing (Conducted by Samuel Soal). This initially yielded poor results but following suggestions from another researcher the results were reanalysed for a phenomenon called displacement. This showed that their responses significantly corresponded to targets for trials one removed from which they were assigned.
Further research by Saul produced highly significant results suggestive of precognitive telepathy. They were also prominently critiqued as fraudulent. Following Soal's death in 1975, support for the research was largely abandoned.
- Zener cards were developed in the 1930s to enable research into ESP phenomena. These cards bear the symbols circle, square, wavy lines, cross, and star; there are five cards of each in a pack of 25.
Erasmus : Zener Cards
In a telepathy experiment, the "sender" looks at a series of cards while the "receiver" guesses the symbols. To try to observe clairvoyance, the pack of cards is hidden from everyone while the receiver guesses. To try to observe precognition, the order of the cards is determined after the guesses are made.
In all such experiments order of the cards must be random so that hits are not obtained through systematic biases or prior knowledge. At first the cards were shuffled by hand, then by machine.
Later, random number tables were used, nowadays, computers. An advantage of ESP cards is that statistics can easily be applied to determine whether the number of hits obtained is higher than would be expected by chance.
Rhine used ordinary people as subjects and claimed that, on average, they did significantly better than chance expectation. Later he used dice to test for Psychokinesis and also claimed results that were better than chance.
A review in 1940 of published studies with 33 being contributed by external independent investigators showed that over 60% of these independent studies reported significant results suggestive of ESP
Kinkajou : what are your perspectives on Psychic abilities, Old Dog?
Erasmus : Make it clear I believe in intuition. As in any skill you obtain: it requires practice to develop skill. There is a focusing effect. People who believe in intuition do experiences practical effects. People who do not believe in intuition and are sceptical do not.
As in any skill, there are many different aspects or facets to the skill. Not everyone is skilled in every aspect of psychic phenomena or intuition. Intuition can be experienced in the ability to obtain information via:
- Use of tarot cards as a focusing point.
- Generation and interpretation of mental pictures, as in waking dream type phenomena. Some natively intuitive people generate seemingly random pictures and extract themes from these to make predictions or to find knowledge. Intuitive people claim that questions can be asked to check predictions or knowledge and that the answer to these questions will be consistent with the initial reading. Answers can be generated to questions that we do not even know we need to ask.
- Waking dreams former slightly different phenomena. This involves either a flash image or a series of images suggesting information or knowledge about an event past present or future, and possibly remote.
- The experience intense smells or feelings auditory phenomena suggesting information or knowledge about an event past present or future, and possibly remote.
Tarot Cards a Sample
Erasmus : Similar to the way people vary in their mental and physical attributes, people also vary in their psychic attributes. This means that standard scientific investigation of psychic phenomena using a random group of people they will discover that many of these people do not have the particular skill being tested.
This means that a statistical analysis will be unlikely to reveal the presence of psychic phenomena. The focusing effect further clouds statistical analysis of results.
Erasmus : There have been many people who have attempted to validate psychic phenomena. The conclusion of people who accept psychic phenomena as possible but still insist on scientific validation, is that these phenomena do in fact exist. However interpreting intuition is difficult. Some people are of course more skill than others.
There was a famous story I read about an English electrical professor who was interested in séance phenomena. He recorded every silence and attempted to validate the information obtained.
His conclusion was that psychic phenomena do in fact exist and that they can be validated. He obtained information that was not within the experience or knowledge of any the people present at the silence. However, on interviewing people who may indeed live in a remote location he was able to validate that the knowledge reported was in fact true.
He gave an example of noticing a woman one day walking up and down the corridor outside of his office. He eventually asked her if he could do anything for her. She replied she wasn’t sure. She was not even sure why she was there but felt she needed to be there. He took her into his office and asked her what was disturbing her. She replied that she had had a waking dream or an intuition.
She had seen her husband involve the terrible accident. He was taken away by ambulance. There was blood everywhere. The car was wrecked. She was wondering whether she should allow her husband to leave home on the day she felt this event would occur.
The professor replied that it is very difficult to know whether the premonition she had would occur if she opposed her husband leaving home and prevented him from doing so, or whether it would only occur if he did leave home on the day in question.
He suggested that it may be very difficult to interpret the events of the premonition she had. After the discussion she realised that something into consciousness and prompted her to come into the building where the professor worked and to have a discussion with someone about her premonition.
She allowed her husband to go to work on the day in question. He was involved in a terrible accident that was taken away by ambulance. A truck carrying steel rods had lost part of the load.
A steel rod had speared through the front windscreen of the vehicle in which a husband was travelling. It missed her husband by inches. He was impacted by glass fragments from the windscreen which produced a number of cuts and a large amount of blood. The ambulance arrived on the scene and took him away to hospital for examination. Subsequently was discharged from hospital with only minor and scratches.
The event had indeed happened exactly as the woman had foreseen. However her husband sustained only very minor injuries. Her fear of his death was unfounded.
Kinkajou : I see this example illustrates the difficulty in interpreting the significance of psychic phenomena such as intuition or premonitions. Yes they occurred, but not exactly quite as we perceive they would occur.
The professor in his book related another example. He and a group of his colleagues who had been working to validate séances, decided to try to answer the question about the purported communication with the deceased.
His approach and that of the students was to invent a fictitious person. They invented a full history of this fictitious person and all studied the fictitious history of his life. They then attempted to communicate with this fictitious person who we will call Bill through the medium of a séance.
Since no such person as Bill had ever existed, it should not be possible to communicate with Bill. Yet the research is in the séance did manage to communicate with Bill. However they all knew Bill did not exist. The focusing effect was very much in action as they all believed in the validity of séances.
They were able to obtain information from Bill that could be validated by external means. However there was no “Bill”.
The question then became “what exactly were they communicating with?” Bill could not be dead because he was never alive in the first place. Their conclusion was that perhaps they were communicating with some group consciousness or other level of human interaction.
They were communicating with something. They were definitely not communicating with a dead person. However they were able to extract real information from “Bill”. This information could be validated.
Kinkajou : So what do you think Goo?
Goo : I think I sense a message in the future. Continue!